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International Heat Transfer Conference 11

ISSN: 2377-424X (online)
ISSN: 2377-4371 (flashdrive)


Masahiro Shoji
Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656, Japan


The research of boiling is several decades old. Since the pioneering experiment of Nukiyama (1934), extensive data have been accumulated from experimental studies for various conditions and configurations, leading development of currently available empirical or phenomenological correlations. However, most correlation applies around the relatively narrow range of conditions, and exhibits a considerable error band even for the data set on which it is based. In contrast to this multitude of correlation, development of mechanistic models based on the underlying physical processes has been sporadic, and we can not predict a priori the boiling behavior, from first-principle models or with high accuracy, without experimental retest. Thus, the use of boiling is not a mature technology while it is one of our important technologies.
This paper summarizes recent development of researches dealing with nonlinear behaviors of boiling, to suggest some potential reasons why we have had limited success regarding the mechanistic modeling of boiling. This article focuses primarily on pool boiling, because it provides a simple configuration easy to address fundamental issues. Despite the abundant papers and books on nonlinear phenomena have been published, research on pool boiling is rather limited. Recent works of Los Alamos National Laboratory, Oxford University, The University of Tokyo, and some others are the exceptions to this statement. Their works show that boiling is one example of nonlinear spatio-temporal systems where even very small systems exhibit very complex behavior. They suggest also that such nonlinear behavior is one of the reasons that mechanistic predictive capabilities for the boiling process have remained elusive. This article, basing mainly on their recent achievements, involves some overview information for the classical as well as modern boiling research background in the first section and the description of recent nonlinear experiments and models in the successive sections, and the section of discussion follows. And, the last section concludes this article.

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