MEASUREMENT OF ICE ADHESION FORCE ON NANO SCALE BY SCANNING PROBE MICROSCOPE (INFLUENCES OF SURFACE TEMPERATURE AND SURFACTANT ON ICE ADHESION FORCE TO COPPER)
Because of many troubles caused by strong ice adhesion force to a metal surface, it is important to properly know the ice adhesion force. Studies for the ice adhesion force have been conducted by many researchers. However, they have focused on the ice adhesion force measured on a macro-scale by giving a shearing force at the interface between the cooling surface and the ice. When the ice adhesion force to the metal surface is measured by the above method, the measured ice adhesion force is an apparent value including a force breaking ice because of the metal surface's unevenness, therefore, there are always remaining ices on the surface. But, if the ice can be reduced to a nano-size, relative evenness of the surface to the ice can be attempted. Thus, to measure correct adhesion force without influence of the surface unevenness, one of the authors developed a method for measuring ice adhesion force on the nano-scale by the SPM. In this paper, shearing stresses defined as (ice adhesion force) /(ice adhesion area) at copper surface temperatures of -12 and -5°C were obtained from the results measured by a scanning probe microscope under conditions with and without surfactant at the critical micelle concentration. And to estimate validity of measurement results ice surface energies with and without surfactant were also measured, varying ice surface temperatures.